BALTIMORE (AP) — The widespread unrest that broke out in Baltimore on the day of Freddie Gray’s funeral on April 27, 2015, has been attributed to a host of factors, including decades of dysfunction in the city’s institutions, neighborhoods and leadership. But there were outside pressures, as well, including outrage in other cities over the deaths of other black men following their contact with police. Here of five of those cases:
A 43-year-old black father of six, Garner died July 17, 2014, during an encounter near his Staten Island home with the New York Police Department, after an officer appeared to place him in a chokehold while arresting him on suspicion of illegally selling loose, untaxed cigarettes. No criminal charges have been filed in Garner’s death, which was captured on cellphone video by an onlooker, but a federal probe continues. Garner’s dying refrain, “I can’t breathe”, became a rallying cry that helped galvanize a national movement on police treatment of minorities.
An unarmed black 18-year-old, Brown was fatally shot by white police officer Darren Wilson on August 9, 2014, in the St. Louis suburb of Ferguson, Missouri. Some witnesses claimed Brown had his hands up in surrender, but police maintained Wilson shot in self-defense. A St. Louis County grand jury and the U.S. Department of Justice declined to indict Wilson, who resigned. The Justice Department issued a report critical of Ferguson in March 2015, citing racial bias in the city’s criminal justice system.
Rice, a black 12-year-old boy, was fatally shot outside a Cleveland, Ohio, city recreation center by white, then-rookie patrolman Timothy Loehmann, on Nov. 22, 2014, while Rice played with a pellet gun. Rice died the next day during surgery. Loehmann and his training officer, Frank Garmback, were captured on surveillance video as they responded to a 911 call about a man waving a gun and pointing it at people. A grand jury in late December 2015 declined to indict them.
The 44-year-old black man was shot and killed on April 2, 2015, in Tulsa, Oklahoma, by a white volunteer sheriff’s deputy who says he mistook his handgun for a stun gun. Robert Bates, 73, was charged with second-degree manslaughter in Harris’ death, which was caught on video. Stanley Glanz, the sheriff who employed him as a reserve deputy, was indicted in Sept. 2015 by a grand jury on two misdemeanor counts and resigned Nov. 1. Bates has pleaded not guilty. His trial is scheduled to start April 18.
Scott, 50, was fatally shot on April 4, 2015, by white South Carolina police officer Michael Slager while trying to run from a traffic stop in North Charleston. A bystander recorded the shooting with a cellphone as Slager shot Scott, who was unarmed and running away from him, eight times in the back. Slager, who lied about the circumstances of the shooting before the video was released, was fired after his arrest on a murder charge. His trial is scheduled for later this year.