Legislation has been proposed in states across the country to protect those who — due to religious beliefs — decline to employ or serve certain people. Critics say the laws are aimed at the LGBT community and are discriminatory. Recent laws denounced as discriminatory in North Carolina and Mississippi has prompted a growing backlash from opponents. Here’s a look at legislation around the country:
Alabama lawmakers are pushing a measure to prevent the state from refusing to license childcare service providers who decline services that conflict with their religious beliefs. Religious organizations contract with the state to provide some childcare services, and opponents of the proposal have argued that the bill could be used to exclude gay and lesbian couples from adopting children or being foster parents. The proposal comes after the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously struck down an Alabama Supreme Court order that invalidated a lesbian couple’s adoption in Georgia.
In Alaska, during the current Legislature, bills barring discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity have gone nowhere, and bills to allow clergy to refuse to solemnize a marriage without being subject to criminal or civil liability failed to gain traction before the scheduled end of the 90-day session. Lawmakers remain in extended session but have narrowed their focus to budget and revenue bills.
Arkansas lawmakers last year approved a revised version of a religious objections measure after the initial version faced widespread criticism that it was anti-LGBT. The Legislature also enacted a law aimed at preventing cities and counties from passing anti-discrimination measures that include sexual orientation or gender identity.
Colorado lawmakers introduced a bill in February that would have blocked the state from taking any action that may burden a person’s religious freedom unless it was the least restrictive means of furthering a compelling governmental interest. A House committee indefinitely postponed discussion on the bill.
Republican Gov. Rick Scott signed a law stating that clergy, churches, religious schools and other religious organizations cannot be required to marry people or allow their facilities to be used for marriage celebrations that violate “a sincerely held religious belief.” The law takes effect July 1.
Republican Gov. Nathan Deal vetoed a bill that would have prohibited the government from imposing penalties on religious schools and organizations that chose not to employ or serve people based on their sincerely held religious beliefs. The proposal would have also protected clergy who declined to perform weddings for gay and lesbian couples.
A bill to prevent insurers and health care providers from discriminating against transgender patients has passed both chambers of the Legislature, and they’re currently working out differences on the amendments. The measure prohibits denying, canceling or limiting coverage for services including care related to gender transition, under certain conditions. Several lawmakers also introduced bills to protect the freedom to express religious beliefs by prohibiting the state from taking discriminatory action based on the person’s moral convictions, but the bills were never granted a hearing.
Illinois lawmakers are advancing a bill to let transgender people change the gender marker on their birth certificate without having to undergo a sex-change operation first. The bill is awaiting action by the full House, where it’s expected to pass before proceeding to the Senate.
Republican Gov. Mike Pence signed a bill last year barring government entities from substantially burdening the religious exercise of individuals, organizations and businesses, unless by the least restrictive means to further a compelling government interest. After businesses raised concerns, Pence signed an amended version stating that the law cannot be used to deny services, public accommodations, employment or housing based on race, religion, age, sexual orientation or gender identity.
A proposed bill to prohibit the government from substantially burdening a person’s exercise of religion similar to legislation being considered in many other states was introduced in the Iowa House of Representatives in January. The proposal has been referred to the judiciary committee.
A new law prevents colleges and universities from denying religious student associations the same funding or benefits available to other groups because of requirements that its members follow the association’s religious beliefs, standards or conduct. The law will take effect July. Bills were also introduced to order public schools and colleges to designate restrooms, locker rooms and other facilities for use by males or females according to students’ gender at birth.
The Republican-led Senate passed a measure that would expand the state Religious Freedom Restoration Act by barring penalties against those who decline to provide “customized, artistic, expressive, creative, ministerial or spiritual goods or services” to people that would infringe on their “right of conscience” or religious freedoms. The bill is pending in the Democratic-led House.
Gov. John Bel Edwards signed an executive order providing state employees and contractors with protection from discrimination based on sexual orientation, gender identity and more, with exemptions for churches and religious organizations. Edwards also rescinded an order former Gov. Bobby Jindal signed that prohibited state agencies from denying licenses and contracts to businesses that take actions because of religious beliefs against same-sex marriage. Meanwhile, the Louisiana House voted to allow clergy and churches to refuse to perform or host same-sex marriage ceremonies, a proposal that awaits debate in the state Senate. Edwards doesn’t oppose the bill, but says it’s unnecessary because the First Amendment provides those protections.
The Legislature is weighing a bill to expand a 2011 state law banning discrimination against transgender people in the workplace and in housing by also banning discrimination in restaurants, malls and other public accommodations, including restrooms.
Michigan Sen. Tom Casperson says he’s firmly committed to introducing legislation to prohibit transgender students from using a bathroom other than the one matching the sex listed on their birth certificate. Casperson said his proposed bill, which has not yet been introduced, would allow transgender students to use staff restrooms in the school, or single occupancy unisex bathrooms, but only with the consent of the student’s parent.
A bill was introduced in late March to require employers and public facilities to designate separate restrooms and changing rooms for men and women. A portion of the bill reads, “No claim of nontraditional identity or ‘sexual orientation’ may override another person’s right of privacy based on biological sex.”
A new law prohibits the government from taking “any discriminatory action” against religious organizations that decline to host marriages, employ people or facilitate adoption or foster care based on a religious belief that marriage should be between one man and one woman, sex outside marriage is wrong or that sexual identity is determined by a person’s anatomy at birth. Several states and cities have banned travel to Mississippi and rock singer Bryan Adams canceled a concert in the state to protest.
The Senate passed a proposed amendment to the state constitution in March that would bar government penalties against individuals and business such as florists or photographers who cite “a sincere religious belief” while declining to provide “services of expressional or artistic creation” for same-sex weddings and receptions. The protections also would apply to clergy and religious organizations that decline to make their facilities available for same-sex weddings. If passed by the House, the proposal will go before voters. The proposal has generated backlash from more than 60 businesses and the Missouri Chamber of Commerce.
A bill to ban workplace discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity was defeated in the Nebraska Legislature this year. Lawmakers have shelved the bill for the rest of the year.
Three New Mexico lawmakers in December 2015 introduced a measure “to prevent discriminatory action by a person or a government agency in response to a person’s free exercise of religion.” The proposal died during the 2016 regular session.
A new law prevents local and state government from mandating protections for LGBT people in the private sector or at stores and restaurants. The law was enacted in late March partly to overturn a Charlotte ordinance that would have allowed transgender people to use bathrooms corresponding to their gender identity. The law suffered a blow Tuesday when a federal appeals court that oversees North Carolina issued an opinion that threatens part of the law requiring students to use bathrooms in line with their gender at birth in public schools and universities.
North Dakota lawmakers have defeated measures in each of the past three sessions to prohibit discrimination in housing and employment based on sexual orientation.
A bill pending in the Ohio House would let churches and pastors refuse to perform same-sex marriages. Under the so-called Pastor Protection Act, no clergy could be required to solemnize a marriage or have their church property be used to host a ceremony that’s against their religious beliefs. The proposal has had several hearings.
A new law states clergy and other religious officials cannot be required to perform marriages or provide marriage counseling, courses or workshops that violate their conscience or religious beliefs. On March 14, gay rights advocates in the state celebrated the failure of 27 bills in the Legislature that they said unfairly discriminated against LGBT people.
Gov. Tom Wolf in early April signed an executive order barring state contractors and grant recipients from discriminating based on sexual orientation or gender identity. Legislation that would ban such bias in employment, housing and public services has stalled; a committee chairman says he wants to make sure it wouldn’t violate anybody’s religious liberties or freedom of conscience.
A bill to require transgender people to use public bathrooms corresponding to their biological sex is not expected to pass. A Senate panel took testimony, mostly from opponents, over two days last week but took no vote. While the bill could still reach the Senate floor, it will almost certainly die there. Republican Gov. Nikki Haley and state business leaders oppose it as unnecessary.
The Legislature passed a bill to require students to use bathrooms and locker rooms matching their gender at birth, but GOP Gov. Dennis Daugaard vetoed it. The House also passed legislation barring government from taking “discriminatory action” against people, organizations or businesses based on religious beliefs that marriage should be between one man and one woman, sex outside marriage is wrong or that sexual identity is determined by a person’s biological sex at birth. The bill did not pass before the legislative session ended.
Tennessee lawmakers passed legislation exempting mental health counselors from providing services to clients based on the therapists’ religious beliefs and personal principles, as long as they refer the clients to someone else. The American Counseling Association has said Tennessee would be the only state to allow counselors to refuse to treat patients for those reasons if the bill is signed into law. The sponsor of a bill to require students at public grade schools and universities to use bathrooms and locker rooms that match their gender at birth pulled the legislation to see how legal challenges play out in other states that passed similar legislation.
Before the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that states must allow gay marriage, Republican Gov. Greg Abbott signed a law last June stating that clergy and religious organizations cannot be required to marry people or allow their facilities to be used for wedding celebrations that violate a “sincerely held religious belief.” Texas did not hold a legislative session in 2016, but the previous year, a Republican-backed bill repealing local ordinances banning discrimination against gay and transgender people failed without reaching a floor vote in either chamber. The proposal attempted to roll back such ordinances that already existed in all the state’s largest cities. Instead, the all-Republican state Supreme Court heard a legal challenge to an anti-discrimination ordinance approved by Houston’s City Council, and ruled that it had to be put to a referendum. Houston voters soundly defeated the ordinance in a November 2015 election featuring very low turnout.
Utah in 2015 passed an anti-discrimination law that makes it illegal to base employment and housing decisions on sexual orientation or gender identity. Gay-rights advocates had tried for years to pass similar legislation but only succeeded last year when the measure won support of the Utah-based Mormon church and included religions protections.
Democratic Gov. Terry McAuliffe vetoed a Republican-backed bill stating that clergy and religious organizations cannot be penalized for declining to participate in same-sex marriages.
Multiple pieces of legislation concerning sex-specific restrooms were introduced by Republicans in both chambers of Washington’s legislature. A bill that would have blocked the Washington Human Rights Commission from initiating any rule-making procedures involving gender segregated bathrooms died in a Senate committee.
The only bill introduced in the Republican-led Legislature dealing with gays, lesbians and transgender people was a measure to force transgender students in public schools to use bathrooms and locker rooms assigned to their gender at birth. GOP leaders never brought the bill up for a vote before the two-year session ended.
The Republican-led House passed a bill modeled after the federal Religious Freedom Restoration Act, stating that government “shall not substantially burden a person’s exercise of religion” unless by the least restrictive means for a compelling government interest. The bill was amended and then defeated in the Senate.